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Commemorating the 25th anniversary of formation of C.P.I(M.L)Party Unity and 30 years of the release of the Jehenabad Comrades

Commemorating the 25th anniversary of formation of C.P.I(M.L)Party Unity, year-formed in January 1982 and 30 years of the release of the Jehenabad Comrades

By Harsh Thakor
(Author
is an independed research scholar based in Mumbai)

This year is 30 years since cadres were released from jail in Jehenabad district-a historic venue of the revoluti nary peasant movement in Bihar. Cadres of the CPI (ML) from Jehanabad-Palamau region fought against the disruptionist and revisionist line put forward by Satyanarayan Singh in 1971. Also while struggling against the left line of the Bhojpur comrades, they built some roots in the area. After the release of many comrades from jail in 1977, the movement picked up momentum and was re-organised. In the self �critical review the organization resolved to build mass movements and mass organizations and launched an ideological self �rectification campaign.They organised themselves into the CPI (ML) (Unity Organisation) in 1978.These cadres had come from the Satya Narayan Singh Ranks and opposed his analysis. In 1982 the Unity Organisation merged with a section of the COC, CPI (ML) to form the COC, CPI (ML) Party Unity.(It is the 25th anniversary year in 2007)Later he same organization merged with the C.P.IML.)Peoples War Group which in term merged with the Maoist Communist Centre to form he C.P.I.(Maoist).

The Jehanabad-Palamau region is one of the backward regions of Bihar. In addition to cultivation, the peasants have to rely on the collection of forest produce for their subsistence. In this area the writ of the landlord lay unchallenged. The situation began to change with the entry of the Unity Organisation. Learning from their previous �left� errors special attention was paid to build a mass base for the activities of their armed squads. A peasant organisation was formed - The Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti (MKSS). All old practices were questioned and landlords� authority challenged. Struggles for wage increase, against the social oppression of women and scheduled castes, and the biggest struggles arose over the auction of forest produce.. At the Party Congress held in 1987 the COC, CPI (ML) Party Unity outlined the following tasks : "We are tackling the steadily increasing armed onslaughts of the state, through mass resistance. But gradually the squads too will have to come forward to participate in this resistance. At the phase of confiscating all lands of the landlords and on the eve of building up the guerilla zone, the activities of the squads will be the main aspect of the people�s resistance against the armed attacks of the state."


In Bihar a huge peasant movement was the C.P.I.M.L Party Unity Group(Later merged into Peoples War group which finally merged into C.P.I.Maoist) through the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti)A major movement was led in the Jehenabad and Palamau districts.Various forms of Struggle were adopted.. Credit must be given particularly to the M.K.S. where they led broad based peseant movements.).

. The C.P.I.M.L Party Unity(Now merged into C.P.I.Maoist ,earlier merged into C.P.I.M.L Peoples War) ,in my opinion played he biggest role in the mass movement. The 4 mass organisations of the group formed were the Bharat Naujavan Sabha which carried out youth struggles of historic Significance (It was a major achievement that open mass revolutionary agitations for democratic rights,against corruption,in solidarity with peasant struggles,against malpractices in jails and hospitals, were led);the Mazdooor Kisan Sangram Samiti, which developed a historic peasant revolutionary movement;the NariMukti Sanghrash Samiti, (Revolutionary Women�s Front) which built a big womens revolutionary Cultural Organisation;and the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad.(Ressurected form of the banned M.K.S.S.)In 1994 the Party Unity Section formed it�s first ever student organization in Bihar,namely .The M.K.S.P set up village schools for Dalit peasants and alternative health facilities in addition to re-organising land and leading successful struggles for Minumum wages. The struggle of the M.K.S.S began on the question of landless peasants not being paid minumum wages.Agricultural workers were paid a paltry one seer kacchha rice per day ,while the legal payment was 4 kg.of rice per day.Major gains were established in this respect. The major struggles which these mass organisations led were in Jehanabad and Palamau districts by the Party.In many respects the braod peasant revolutionary struggles led by the Mazdur Kisan Sangram Samiti and later the Mazdur Kisan Sangrami Parishad represnted the mass revolutionary Line.Here the peasant movement had it�s most profound influence.

The Party Unity Group (In 1998 merged with C.P.I.M.L Peoples War into Peoples War Group which later merged with M.C C.Into C.P.I.Maoist in September 2004) after it�s peasant Front M.K.S S was banned in 1986 re-organised itself first into the Mazdoor Kisam Mukti Manch and then the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad. The Lok Sangram Morcha a joint front of several democratic organization led several programmers opposing repression in the form of encounters. Together with the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the M.K S.P joint anti �repression programmes were held.The revolutionary peasant movement was strengthened in Jehanabad and Palamau districts.However the defective military line caused open democratic mass forces to be subjected to bouts of severe repression and ultimately all open activity was almost blocked..

Below I am submitting my compiled notes from a revolutionary Journal �Mukti Marg� and from reports of the P.U.D.R.The author recommends that earlier issues o the journal be obtained.The journal brilliantly reports he struggles of Bihar which portray the mass line-similar to the struggles before and when armed struggle was launched in China(Up to the early 1990�s)Later due to incorrect understanding of military line the mass movement suffered.The reports of peasant struggles are outstanding I the journal ,particulary those in Palamau and Jehenabad.I also recommend readse to raed he reports of he A.P.D.R in Wst Bengal whose excerpts are published in the E.P.W.).

. The Jehanabad-Palamau region is one of the backward regions of Bihar. In addition to cultivation, the peasants have to rely on the collection of forest produce for their subsistence. In this area the writ of the landlord lay unchallenged. The situation began to change with the entry of the Unity Organisation. Learning from their previous �left� errors special attention was paid to build a mass base for the activities of their armed squads. A peasant organisation was formed - The Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti (MKSS). All old practices were questioned and landlords� authority challenged. Struggles for wage increase, against the social oppression of women and scheduled castes, and the biggest struggles arose over the auction of forest produce.The incipient movement saw three of its young activists martyred on 10th August 1982. The landlords of Bhagwanpur village in Gaya district kidnaped Lakhan Manjhi (20 years), Sudeshi Manjhi (19) and Balkishore Manjhi (15) and killed them. Lakhan was an important member of the Party�s Red Squad. In May 1984 the Palamau-Aurangabad Regional Committee of the MKSS had held its conference and plans were being made for fresh attacks on the landlords . In June 1984 the movement faced a severe loss, when the popular secretary of the MKSS, Krishna Singh, was shot dead by landlords. In May 1984 the Palamau-Aurangabad Regional Committee of the MKSS had held its conference and plans were being made for fresh attacks on the landlords. On June 17, Krishna Singh was conducting a meeting of the MKSS at Jharna in Palamau district. The local landlord and goondas attacked the meeting, opening fire. A chase began, Com. Krishna Singh allowed his comrades to get away, and fell to the enemy�s bullets. Condemnation of this murder spread in a spate of protests throughout the area. The protests led to the arrest of 35 of the hoodlums involved.Meanwhile. As the movement grew the party too put forward the perspective of building up a guerilla zone. In 1986 ,the Bihar State banned the Mazdoor Kisan Sangram Samiti, led by the Party Unity Group.This organisation had organised a strong revolutionary peasant movement ,particularly in areas of Central Bihar. The major areas were Jehanabad and Palamau districts..In 1986 a major massacre took place in Arwal in Jehanabad district. The leaders of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad were arrested,including it's general
secretary.Office bearers Arvind Kumar,Vijaykumar and Jeetram Singh were arrested.On March 24th,1986 the policearrested Jagdeo Sharma,an activist of he M.K S S.In retaliatn the peasants converged on the streets crying�Release Jagdeo Sharma.Hundreds of peasants surrounded he police van and pulled Comrade Sharma out of the grip of the police.In this heroic act of defiance Comrdae Siddhi Ram fell as amartyr.History repeated itself in Village Bhawardah of Panki Block when apolice party was engulfed by hundreds of women opposing the police raids o villages. The besieged policemen attempted to fire ,but were thwarted by he militant women. They snatched the us from the police and beat them up severely. In 1988 a front comprising of 7 revolutionary organisations was formed called the Lok Sangram Morcha which had it's innaugural convention in 1988 in Rohtas district.In1989 it alsoorganised a massive convention against repression in Bihar.In 1989 the peasant organisation was ressurected in the name ok Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch.Earlier in 1988 the Bharat Naujavan Sabha had been formed to build a strong revolutionary youth movement.In 1990 a huge rallyw as joitly held bythe Lok Sangram Morcah aand the Jan Suraksha Manch(maSs front of M.C.C)

Revolutionary and democratic agitations Reference to journals like Mukti Marg.Peoples esistance EtcI n 1991 the Lok Sangram Morcha led a massive rally in Palamau district consisting of 10,000 people protesting against 'Operation Agnidoot.'Arjun Singh,convenor of the Lok Sangram Morcha and Bharat Naujavan Sabha, Palamau convener Satish Kumar addressed the rally. In Palamau as a result of strong repression faced by the Sunlight Sena the democratic organisations protested through a protest rally. The state police attacked the protest. Thus 7 democratic organisations made a joint front. Here a protest was also launched against the arrest of democratic jounalistAmitabh Bagchi., as the arrests of 3 activists of the Jan Mukti Parishad and the killing of 3 M.C.C activists.On 27th December in Palamau Jan Mukti Parishad held a conference protesting
against Devendra Nath Sahadev who carried out severe repression on coal workers.. The meeting was held at Brahani Bazar where comrades Satish Kumar of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha,Rajdev Ram of the Jan Mukti Parishad,Gurteshwar Singh of the Workers Struggle Front,and Mithlesh Singh of the Colliery Workers Union.This meeting had a significant impact on coal workers.

Similarly in Jehanabad districts rallies and conventions were organised. They exposed the opression on the peasantry by landlord gangs like the Bhoomi Sena,the Lorrik Sena and the Brahmarshi Sena.They also condemned 'Operation Rakshak', where great police repression took place on people from all walks of life.On 30th November 1990 a massive peasant gathering was organised adressed by Arvind Kumar,leader of the Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch,and Rajesh Kumar ,state convenor of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha,Bihar,Nandlal Pandit of the Lok Sangram Morcha and Arjun Prasad Singh State convenor of the Lok Sangram Morcha.All these speakers explained the peasants the need to form a strong agrarian revolutionary peasant movement and the need for the middle peasants to unite wth the landless. Democratic resolutions were passed at the meet demanding effective dams for irrigation as well for implementation of the land ceilings Act. There was no adequate protection to the peasants during both times of drought and floods, where work had only been done to protect the vested interests of the landlords. Demands were made for the State Government implementing adequate protection schemes against both types of disasters. It was demanded that a permanent dyke should be built on the Pun pun River in Motepur,a mor-bund should be built in Pymar river at Tedar,the Jamnai river should be cleaned and widened the Gaayghat dam of Barabar Pahad should be consolidated, the Chapadhat dyke of Jamnai should be cleaned,the Sone canal be modernised,the Gairjura land be distributed to the landless and that houses should be allotted to the needy, implementing the housing schemes. After the convention for one month a Padyatra was taken all over the districts culminating in a conference on 27th and 28th January.From 2nd March to 30th March, a massive rally was held, comprising of cycle rallies in different areas.On 19th April a convention was held in Arwal commemorating the massacre in 1986. The prograamme culminated in Gaya where a massive conference of landless and poor peasants took place.(Informatio fro Mukti Marg,Jan-Feb 1991)


Another significant feature of the movement at that time was the jail struggles as well as struggles for democratic Rights ,particularly in Jehanabad and Palamau districts.A struggle was held in Jehanabad jail protesting against corruption of jail atrocities led by Sachidanand Prabhat.On 16th January a massive gathering was organised by the Lok Sangram Morcha and the Bharat Naujavan Sabha.A memorandum was presented to the jail authorities. In Daltonganj,in Palamau district the Bharat Naujavan Sabha led a protest against the arrest of activist Ramkeshwar Singh of the Janmukti Parishad.About 150 youth assembled and the gathering was adressed by Satish Kumar, Bharat Naujavan Sabha convenor,Bhuvaneshwar Prasad of the Lok Sangram Morcha and Vyavsayi Singh of the Slum dwellers commiteee.Later in Palamau 3 Bharat Naujavan Sabha activists were arrested against which Lok Sangram Morcha launched a massive protest.Here a demand was also launched against the banning on revolutionary organisations in the State. Later in 1993 a massive struggle was carried out in Daltonganj jail against malpractices. Political prisoners were denied the most basic rights. There was no proper food, water ,sleeping facilities, sanitation or medical attention. The jail administration was also hand in hand with corrupt contractors and politicians. The Indian People's Front joined hands with the Lok Sangram Morcha and Bharat Naujavan Sabha on this issue. The political prisoners
launched a hunger strike against the T.A.D.A.3 Prisoners were transferred to Gaya jail namely Jagdev Sharma,Yugal Pal,Vinod Vidrohiand Jagdev Sharma.Prisoners protested this including the transferred convicts..At the end of the protest a memorandum was given by the organisations.What was healthy that such struggles spread to other areas and did not display individual terrorist tendencies.9i Andhra Pradesh mass fronts like the R.S U and RYL.displayed strong tendenciesAfter the unjust death sentence on the 13 activists from the M.C.C who participated in the Dalechauk Baghaura massacre The Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad launched a statewide protest campaigncovering Jehanabad, Gaya,Patna, Aurangabad, Daltangaunj, Gadhwa, Begususrai, and Bokaro districts. On 25th September a massive jam was carried out in Palamau.The campaign was carried out from 19th September to 25th September. On 18th May 1992 in Shankar ganj in Jehanbad district 2 activists of the Mazdur Kisan Sangrami Samiti were killed by the Bihar police.They were shot with their hands tied behind their backs. The Mazdur Kisan Mukti Manch launched a traffic jam on Arwal-Jehanbad road. On 25th May a protest was held outside the jails. On 2nd June a conference was held. Comprising of 1500 people. It was demanded that the guilty police were punished , the families of the victims compensated Rs ,50,000 each,all police camps withdrawn, all repression on democratic organizations banned. Police camps were deployed to thwart protest. On 5th June a major rally was helped at Golambar junction in Patna.To protest against Operation Agnidoot a military offensive ruthlessly used the T.A.D.A black law. Several democratic activists were arrested. On 13th July, in Palamau,,a protest as held by the Lok Sangram Morcha,.Democratic Organizations like the Indian Peoples Front(only cadres are revolutionary),Mazdur Kisan Sangharsh Vahini,Bihar Mines democratic Workers Union participated. In Dalatngaunj,Lok Sangram Morcha,Jan Sangram Manch,and M.K.S.S protested outside a jail. On 20th June revolutionary democratic Organizations launched a massive struggle against jail malpractices in Daltangaunj. For 3 days.700 people participated. The agitation continued till 17th July. Facilities for fan,latrines,food Etc were demanded.M.C.C,Jan Mukti Parishad,Lok Sangram Morcha,.Party Unity, and Jan Suraksha Manch participated.(Taken rom Mukti Marg-Jan-Feb 1991)

In 1996 The Bharat Naujavan Sabha led a massive protest against malpractices and corruption of doctors in Daltonganj town of Palamau district. In Chainpur Bazar area Bharat Naujavan Sabha led a massive 500 people demonstration against inadequate facilities in government hospitals. The doctors hardly attended work. A memorandum was presented to the city administration against this. These organisations also participated in several campaigns against state and landlord Sena's repression.(eg.The Laxmanpur-Bathe massacre carried out by the Ranbir Sena) Against the massacres of the Ranbir Sena in Laxmanpur Bathe and Shankar bigha torchlight processions and cycle rallies were carried out on protest by the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the D.S.U.In 1997 a meeting held in Jehanabad district commemorating the Russian Revolution was disrupted by the Police under the pretext of Section 144.This event took place on November 23d.Several activists were arrested. The police refused to give permission to give a public meeting. Ultimately after a strong protest a protest meeting of about 500 people was held. This meeting was adressed by Sachidanand Prabhat of the M.K.S.P,Sandeep of the D.S.U.,Sunita of the Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti and Arjun Prasad Singh of the A.I.P.R.F.The meeting was presid4ed by comrade Pappu of the M.K.S.P.Earlier they tear a meeting carried out to commemorate the Arwal massacre was disrupted and office-bearers of the revolutionary organizations were arrested.Sachidand Prabhat,the Jehanabad District M.K.S.P secretary was badly tortured and arrested. The previous day the police killed Comrade Pawan Nat during a firing on a torch light procession carried out by the Bharat Naujavan Sabha.In this period Palamau district also experienced massive dreprssion.

The state office of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha was raided in 1997.To commemorate May Day Lok Sangram Morcha had planned to organise a public meeting commemorating the historic event on May 9th.The police blocked entry to all parts of Daltonganj town. During the meeting the police arrested 30 people including 3 Lok Sangram Morcha State committee members. On 27th April the meeting of the Harahan Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad organised at Lohar dagga on the issue of Kendu leaves was stopped by the police. On 22nd November 1998 a martyrs meeting commemorating Comrade Devlal Pal was lathi-charged by the police in Vishrampur village.Houses of peasant leaders were raided and several activists were illegally detained. Villager�s houses were razed to the ground. On 27th January 1999 a meeting of the Jharkhandi Kisan Sangrami Parishad was attacked in Panki village in Palamau.This meeting was held against Manatu,a notorious criminal .Several activists were arrested. Earlier the Jharkhand Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad carried out a struggle against a corrupt building development officer. A mass meeting was held mobilising 1500 people. A call was given to the masses to form a people's court against the corrupt practices of the Building development officer

A prominent feature of repression was that of the Ranvir Sena which carried out 2 major massacres in Laxmanpur Bathe and Shankar bigha in Jehanabad districts in 1998 and 1999 respectively. The State had connived with the criminal gangs to suppress the revolutionary peasant movement. Massive State-wide protests were held condemning the massacres where progressive anddemocratic sections of various trends participated. With the Revolutionaryorganisations of the Party Unity and Maoist Communist center, various communist revolutionary organisations representing various trends participated like the C.P.I.M.LRed Flag ,the C.P.I.M.L New Democracy, the C.P.I M.L Janashakti etc.In these rallies organisations supporting the J.P.movement participated like the Jan Mukti Sangharsh Vahini.The state wideprotests had tremendous significance in regard to the revolutionary democratic movement.What was significant that democratic organisations held a joint protest irrespective of the political trends they represented.In 1998 a Jan Abhiyan of 14 organisations was formed against State and Landlord repression. From 17th March 1999 an event of tremendous political significance took place all over Bihar. This was the state-wide anti-repression campaign by the All -India People's Resistance Forum. This organisation did wall -writing and postering all through the State. The Jharkhand areas like Ranchi,Palamau were covered well as Jehanabad, Buxar.Gaya, Bhagalpur and Banka districts. In Ranchi 200 people participated including a large number of intellectuals, journalists and activists associated with the Jharkhand movement. However in Daltonganj,another Jharkhand district 200 people attended but the response from intellectuals were poor. In Gaya 150 people attended while in Jehanabad the programme was banned. In Buxar 250 people assembled. In Khagaria 300 people attended and finally in Banka 100 people participared.The speakers were Arjun Prasad Singh of the All India People's Resistance Forum,Amitabh of the Democratic Students Union,Ram Niwas Singh of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad and G.N,Saibaba all India A.I.P.R.F Secretary.All the Speakers unequivocally condemned the nation-wide State Repression, highlighting the patronage given to the Ranbir Sena by the State in Bihar. Similarly the State Repression in Andhra Pradesh and Dandkaranya was condemned and the people were called upon to unitedly resist State Repression.This was the first time the All India People's Resistance Forum carried out such a State-wide programme in Bihar covering the areas of Jharkhand ,North and Central Bihar.It had a positive influence on the people as never before in Bihar was such a State-wide campaign carried out against State Repression.The political Significance was that light was thrown on Repression in India as a whole.(From Peoles REsistane-oragn of A.I.P.R.F.)

In December 1999 a huge protest was organised in Patna protesting against the encounter killing of 3 Central committee members of the People's War Group in Andhra Pradesh.A programme was separately launched by the A.I.PR.F,D.S.U,THE M.K.S.Pand the B.N.S where 10,000 people were mobilised.Another protest was held where all types of Revolutionary Democratic sections participated including the Democratic Lawyers asscosiation,the Jan Mukti Sangharsh Vahini,Philal, and revolutionary groups representing other political trends like the Janashakti,New Initiative and New Democracy Groups. Here similar to the Laxmanpur-Bathe
Massacre groups of all trends participated which has tremendous significance in the revolutionary democratic movementOn 3rd January 1993,the Jan Mukti Parishad captured a dacoit and 2 thieves. In Garwah district in Ataual Village2000 people staged a people�s court. All the looted items were rcovered.This lifted the initiative of the masses to wage a war against injustice and that it was possible to collectively punish and defeat reactionary elements .9Taken from Muti Marg (March 2000)

Political Struggles
In 1991 protests were led by Bharat Naujavan Sabha and Lok Sangram Morcha against the U.S attacks on Iraq. A rally consisting of about 100 people was held in Daltonganj.In similar numbers rallies was held in Jehanabad. .On the author�s visit in October 2001 one of the greatest protests ever staged in the movement in Bihar took place against the American Govt�s decision to declare War after the September 11th Incident.8,000 peasant activist were mobilized particularly from Bhagalpur in protest .The author also met one Comrade of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha from Daltangonj district who reported a jail struggle led by the youth front for better facilities successfully.

Revolutionary peasant struggles-I

Information compiled from Peop lesResistance 1995 issue-From the report on peasant struggles by the M.K S.P by Arjun Prasad Singh.Alos published in Mukti Marg issues from 1989-1993

Various struggles for partial demands and against landlord repression were led by the peasant organisation.A typical example was in Garwah district. Here the area was dominated by Rajput landlords and the people were subjected to barbaric opression.When they struggled they were trampled upon by the landlord's Sunllight Sena who killed 4 people including a brother and 3 minor children. The people retaliated but only for the Sunlight Sena again attacking them and burning down Karui village displacing 200 families.After a long protracted struggle led by the peasant organization 6 of the Rajput landlords surrendered before the people.Under the leadership of the Parishad the displaced people captured some gair Marzua land near Karui village and a new village was called named after Shaheed Kunal .The landlord leaders got in touch with the reactionary leaders and attacked Shaheed Kunal Nagar in large numbers.,kidnapping 7 people and killing 7 people. Statewide protest took place all over the State.

Another Struggle took place in 1992 in Akbarpur village.The Samiti had entered the area in 1987 taking up the issue of a dalit Tola being razed to the ground. After 2 Bhumihar landlords had been annihilated. The M.K.S.S helped the Dalit families rebuild their houses. Later the struggle for wages was also taken up. Only after a protracted struggle did the peasants win the struggle for minimum wages. In 1992 the struggle for land began. Crop Seizure programmes were taken up and peasants were organised not to work in the houses and fields of the reactionary families. A strong economic blockade was launched. The landlords attempted to bring their ploughs and bullocks in large numbers but their attempts were thwarted by the people. The village people seized the ploughs and bullocks. In 1993 the peasant organisation led a heroic struggle in the Palamau-Garwah region. On 25th May 1993 the peasants burnt the palatial house of Budhinarayan Sah's,a notorious landlord who owned 1700 acres of land and who used to tie rebellious peasants to huge anthills of red ants. For over 4 years the people in the area had waged a struggle ransacking his house and seizing arms. 7,000 acres of land which he had criminally seized was re-captured by the peasants and the notorious class enemy was forced to flee the village.

This was remarkale as the Mazdur Kisan Sangrami SAmiti was banned organization and now functioning in a ressurected form.

Similarly land struggles took place in other districts of Bihar like Jehanabad,Gaya, Patna,Khagaria,Begusurai,Buxar ,Rohtas,Bhabhua and Aurangabad districts.Struggles were also carried for people's authority.People's courts were set up to punish guilty offenders.In Palamau 400 women set up a Jan Panchayat trying a criminal by the name of Tetar Baiga guilty of raping several women.He was sentenced to death and beaten up in public.Similarly, a landlord Jay Narayan Singh of Pariyari village in Karpi block was meted out punishment in Jehanabad district who had illegally seized land.In Rohtas district too significat struggles were held.Meetings were held mobilising 100's of peasants. A meeting of particular significance was held on 7th January. On 8th December 3 peasants had killed a criminal landlord element. The police used this as a pretext to repress the masses and went around villages exposing the peasants and trumping up criminal charges against them. They razed 35 houses to the ground and extorted money from the people. The fact that that elements had illegally grabbed gairmajura land was hidden.The Jan Sangram Samiti in Rohtas held a meeting exposing this. A massive protest programme was heldagainst this injustice.

In 1991 in Parasona,in Jehanabad,,22 acres of gair mazarualand controlled by a single landowner from Shaguni was captured under the leadership of the Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch(resurrected form of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Samiti) and paddy as sown.At the time of the harvest the landlord�s henchman attacked the village fired at the villagers and harvested the crop.The villagers boycotted the land for 2 years ,at the end of which the land was sold to Sudhir Kumar ,a middle-peasant owner Lodhipur.The Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch also captured 1000 acres of land created by the shifting of the river bed of Son in Jalpura Vilage in Patna.The M.K.M.M,in addition to struggles for fair wages ,took up issues directly connected to the development of agriculture.It formed a struggle committee that took up the task of building the 9km dam across the Tenar in Arwal block.Community labour from the surrounding villages was organized.

On 24th November 1992 to 20th January1993 a major protest was launched against drought and corruption of state government bodies in Palamau. .It was launched by people from, 300 villages, that too in a single day. From 50 villages the headman attended .In the final public meeting 5000 people attended. In Garwah district. In Palamau-Garwah a massive police force was deployed to curb the protest. Jan Mukti Parishad activists were arrested from Garwah,Daltangaunj,and Japla Etc. A massive stir was built up demanding justice,implementaion of correct policies towards drought,punishment to corrupt contractors Etching various villages. On 29th January in Shankar Vigraha village in Jehanabad 22 Dalits was massacred .In Palamau a protest meeting in solidarity was lathi-charged in Ranchi-Daltangaunj.Here people from 15 villages carried out a massive jam. During the lathii charge the head of J.M.K.S.P leader Ramjit Mahato was severely injured. On 8th February the M.K.S.P held a huge meeting Shankar Vigha village protesting the massacre in protest. The Jan Abhiyan Bihar(comprising of 12 democratic organizations) ,too participated.

Struggles against Communalsim(opposing thedestroying of the Babri Masjid)-Copiled from Mukti Marg May-June1993 issue

-After the destruction of the Babri Masjid on December 6th 1992 by the Kar Sevaks the Bharat Naujavan Sabha launched a massive anti-communal campaign all through the State.In Daltonganj The youth front launched a cycle rally in protest.Bajrang Dal goondas tried to intimidate the activists but the youth carried out heroic self-defence and drove away the reactionaries.In Jehanabad the Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch carried out an anti -communal cycle rally covering a distance of 125 Km.covering more than 15 blocks from 1st February to 15th February..In Gaya the Bharat Naujavan Sabha launched cultural programmes against the communal holocaust.A similar programme took place carried out by the Bharat Naujavan Sabha and other progressive organisations in Bokaro.These programmes were significant in regard to the revolutionary democratic struggle against Communalism.

Struggles for Trade Union Rights

. A memorandum was presented to the Bihar govt..On the trade Union Front, the Bihar Mines democratic Workers Union on 18th May staged a public meeting, in which Japla Cement factory workers and neighbouring mine workers participated. A demand was placed asking for the re-starting of the closed Japla Factory and the Balliya quarry.Electricity,water,cleanliness,was also demanded.The Japla Cement factory as closed and thousands of workers who had made immense sacrifices lost their jobs. From 29 th September 1985 to 14th August 1990 it was closed.4000 workers died out of hunger.Workers made sacrifices of great proportions to have kept the factory running, denying themselves the govt.compensation of RS.13 crore. Later all over Jehanabad,there was a mass campaign condemning the murder.

Programs commemorating martyrs-Compiled from Mukti Marg May-June 1993 and
Mukti Marg 1992

Other frequent types of political programmes were commemoration meetings launched in memory of Martyrs in the revolutionary peasant movement. The most significant of these was the commemoration meeting of Comrade Krishna Singh who died in 1984.(report obtained fro Mukti Marg May-June 1993) This programme was conducted in his native village Badem in Jehanabad on 12th June.A huge rally comprising of 10,000 people took place. People came from 12 districts. Slogans were raised in memory of the beloved comrade and a flag was hoisted in his honour.This programme was presided by Dadachi Ray,the State Lok Sangram Morcha convenor. As well as his father Rajdev Singh.Earlier a public meeting was held adressed by Satish of Bharat Naujavan Sangh as well as Ranjit and Navlesh, Janmukti Parishad's Rajdev Ram, Sachidanand Prabhat,office -bearer of the Jehanabad Gaya section of the Mazdoor Kisan Mukti Manch,Gupteshwar Singh and Arjun Prasad Singh of the Lok Sangram Morcha. And Kiran of the Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti.In Jehanabad jail too a commemoration meeting was held. Other significant martyrdom programmes were those commemorating martyrs Pankaj, Manju and Aditya .A rally was held in Palamau attended by 4,000 people on 22nd March 1992. It was conducted by Bharat Naujavan Sabha and Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti.This programme was adressed by Satish ,Chanchal and Sanju of Bharat Naujavan Sabha,Sachidanand Prabhat of the M.K.K.M.and Kiran of the Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti.The rally was lathi-charged by the police and a protest meeting was launched in Daltangaunj on 2nd April by Bharat Naujavan Sabha.On 22nd March protestors stopped the Palamau express.After this commemoration programmes were also held commemorating comrades Jagdish Paswan who was killed by activists of the Liberation group.Similarly programmes were held for comrades Rajdev Das and Mukhiya (Also killed by Liberation activists),martyrs in the peasant movement.(report from Mukti Marg July-Augus1992)

In July 1993 Comrade Suresh Thakur was martyred at the hands of the Liberation Group.They went to his house and murdered him.On 11th March his martyrdom was commemorated in Bhojpur in Baruhi village.Dadichay Ray ,Sachidanand Prabhat and Amitabh.(Bharat Naujavan Sabha)adressed the gathering.

On the day of heArwal massacre in commemoration in April 1993 a meeting was held by the Mazdur Kisan Mukti ManchAshok Sing addressed the gathering as well as Lok Sangram Morcha leader ,Sacidanad Prabhat:Kiran,activist of Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti:Bihar democratic mine workers Union activist Bhuvaneshwar Singh, attended by about 600 people .

Other commemorative meetings were held for Comrades Jagdish Pasawn I Sidhpur (activist of M.K S S,martyred at the hands of Liberation goons),Comrdae Mukhiya in I Khirimud,.A meeting was held in memory of Comrades Pankaj,Manju and Aditya on 22nd March in 1993 in Daltonganj It had ahuge response A huge rally was held.(The previous yaer it had been commemorated by Jan Mukti Parishad)4000 people participated.

Partial Struggles-Compiled from Mukti MargJul-Aug. 1992 issue

In 1992 a major programme was launched by he Mazdur Kisan Mukti Manch on 30thMayin Gaya on he issue of building a pipeline.Ruling class partiesneglected all the demands of the peole likeLanad and watr.The Taylor Sangharsh Samiti was inspired by the M.K.M.M.One of the biggest ever rallies was launched with of red Flags raised in the air..People were organized with digging instruments.Lok SDangram Morcha played a major role under the leadership of Arjun Prasda Singh.Cultural Programmes were launched.Peasanst and workers resolved to dig the pipeline themselves.2000 people were organized.Participating Organisations were the Mazdur Kisan Mukti Manch ,the Lok Sangra Morcha .

Developments

1994 the peasant organisation was re-named the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad.In this year the Party Unity launched their student front the Democratic Students Union. In this year Bharat Naujavan Sabha had it's innaugural State conference. Here Gautam Mukherjee was made the president.The conference was attended by 6,ooo people.Another event of Political ,significance during this period was the formation of the All-India People's Resistance Forum which now functioned actively in Bihar.As the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad a strong revolutionary peasant movement existed but the Party Unity's frontal organisation had to resort principally to underground functioning., particularly in Jehanabad and Palamau districts. Most of the open programmes were conducted by the All India Peoples Resistance Forum, Bharat Naujavan Sabha and the DemocraticStudents Union. The Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad led a martyr�s memorial meeting on August 15th in Panky in Palamau-Garwah district commemorating the martyrdom of comrades. This meeting was presided by Rajdev Ram of the M.K.S.P.All speakers condemned repression on the peasant movement. During this period the youth and Student organisations worked amongst the peasantry through carrying out 'Go to Village Campaigns.'..

Jharkand-
Compiled fro Mukti Marg Sept-Oct.1997 issue

The other event of enormous political Significance was the movement for a separate Jharkhand. The revolutionary forces consistently supported this movement and various functions were presided over this issue. The prominent Jharkhand areas of the movement were Ranchi, Palamau and Bokaro.In 1987 the Jharkhand co-ordination committee was formed giving a political perspective to the movement. However due to the opportunist attitude of the leadership it ceased to function after having talks with the Central Government. The State Government played a trick forming the Jharkhand Autonomous Council winning over all the stalwarts of Jharkhand like Ram Dayal Munda,Sanjay Basu Mallik and other revolutionary ideologues. In a very difficult political situation the Jharkhand Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad and the Hul Jharkhand Kranti Dal planned to intervene. A joint seminar and rally was held mobilising people from all over Jharkhand in Ranchi.Here 3000 people assembled from Ranchi, Dhabi, Singh bum, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Gumla, Lohargada, Palamau, Garhwa, Hazaribagh and other districts. In the convention Lewa Chand Tedu,the old and reknowned fighters of the Midnapur and Jharkhand struggles,participated.The chief guest of the meeting was Comrade Darshan Pal.He spoke on the need of co-ordinating the movement of Jharkhand and other nationalities with the ongoing democratic andrevolutionary movements of the Country.He also said that the attainment of the Statehood of Jharkhand would provide no solution to the basic problems of the people of Jharkhand,so people should fight for a new Jharkhand in a new federal democratic India. Later Arjun Prasad Singh spoke on the need of raising the political consciousness of the people of Jharkhand and Shambu Mahatoof the Hul Jharkhand Kranti Dal pointed the importance of targeting imperialism. As the main enemy.He recalled the glorious history of the Jharkhand movement.The following day a seminar was held analysing the polemical aspects of the Jharkhand struggle from a Marxist -Leninist point of view.This was presided by Shambu Mahato of the H.K.K.D and Shridhar of the J.M.K.S.P.In the post 1994 period the Mazdoor Sangrami Parishad did significant work in Khagaria and Begusurai districts and Banka districts.

The Emergence of revolutionary student organisations was of greatsignificance in Bihar.

Revolutionary Student Movement in Bihar.

Information based o reports from revolutionarystudent journal �Kalam� and activists of Democratic Students Union.The 1996,1997,1998 and 1999 issues of Kalam have been referred to

In 1994 the Party Unity section formed their first ever revolutionary student organisation in Bihar which was the Democratic Students Union.(The D.S.U.)This had its roots in the Bharat Naujavan Sabha formed in 1988.TheBharat Naujavan Sabha earlier fought for the students and youth collectively.

For the first time a separate organizational structure was built for students. Several former Bharat Naujavan Sabha activists took up the responsibility of building D.S.U. The strategy of the Democratic Students Union was to organise students on their partial demands as well as connect their problems to the chief political issues of the day. The student movement had to be oriented towards the interests of the agrarian revolution. For achieving the task the Democratic Students Union took up the responsibility of organizing �Go to Village Campaigns�. Democratic Students Union also planned to fight against imperialism. as well as democratic
issues.

In the colleges the D.S.U fought against malpractices in Arts colleges as well as engineering colleges. In these institutions unqualified teachers and principals were appointed. Funds were misappropriated by managements. In the Patna Arts College the Principal even stole paintings.D.S.U organised agitations agains this.D.S.U D.S.U declared a lockout in the college not allowing principals and teachers to enter the college.Waris Hadi was made principal in 1994 as he had political links with the governor of Bihar.He sold paintings and illegally appointed several people irrespective of merit. including a lecturer who faced a murder charge. After a protracted student struggle the principal was removed. The president of the then students union was rusticated from the university due to complete collapse of administrative structure in the college. The college was not de-affiliated from the All India technical Services board which badly affected students.

The D.S.U organised agitations against indifference and politicking in Patna University.70students sat on a dharna for 5 daysand a poster exhibition was organised.Programmes were taken jointly with A.I.S.F,the S.F.I and the A.I.D.S.O. fighting for student�s admissions.Dharnas were held against malpractices and corruption. Agitations were also launched against fee hikes. Such examples are in Daltonganj where the students had to clash with the C.P.R.F personnel.

In Patna engineering college the students launched a 6 day hunger strike demanding the opening of a college which had been opened earlier.D.S.U gave soli darity to this issue and burnt an effigy of the education minister.

In the Jharkand areas D.S.U led struggles for tribals in schools to be taught in their native languages.In these areas D.S.U launched agitations for tribal students who were denied the right to learn in their native languages. The D.S.U also fought for democratic rights issues.Very often D.S.U organise cycle rallies as a form of protest.The most significant agitations were against police firings in Madhubani and Darsinghsarai areas of Bihar.Here D.S.U joined hands with even the revisionist student organisations as well as the Chatra Sangharsh Yuva Vahini.This took place in 1995. The D.S.U also protested against the death sentence imposed
on the 13 M.CC activists in 1992.Here the D.S.U joined hands with the Revolutionary Students League and the Progresive Students and Youth front.(The 2 other revolutionary student organisations) After the Laxmanpur-Bathe massacre carried out by the Ranbir Sena the D.S.U Along with the Bharat Naujavan Sangh organised protests throughout the state.In Daltonganj,Jehanabad,Gaya,Khagaria torchlight processions were launched.In conditions of severe repression protests were launched.D.S.U joined several revolutionary organizations this issue.

In 1997 D.S.U protested against the killing of 6 Party Unity activists. In Patna they burned the effigy of the chief minister.D.S.U also held commemoration programmes of the Arwal massacre that took place in 1986.In 1996 a protest meeting was clamped upon by the police and revolutionary activists were arrested. Afer the killing of Comrade Chandrashekar ,a student of J.N.U IN Delhi D.S.U launched protest programmes along with other organisations.In Jehanabad with A.I.D.S.O protests were organised in the form of torchlight processions. In 1999,D.S.U with the Bharat Naujavan Sabha took out a cycle rally from Daltangaunj to Patna protesting against the Shankar bigha massacre. Earlier in Daltonganj an effigy of the chief minister was burnt. In March 2000 D.SU led a protest with other revolutionary organisations protesting the murder of 11 revolutionaries in Kachnewan.An effigy of the Bihar administration was burnt at Patna junction.D.S.U.also participated in the march to Kachnewan as well as on a protest demonstration on April 6th.

From 1995 the D.S.U Organised�Go to Village Campaigns.� These have been conducted on district as well as state levels. Their were 3 types of campaigns launched. The first was on specific political issues. The second type was a general political campaign and the third type was launching cultural programmes.The purpose of these programmes was to integrate the students and youth with the peasantry. In the first campaign in Gumrah district 6 D.S.U activists were arrested campaigning for Beedi Patta workers.The activists were organising the Beedi Patta workers against the merciless contractors who did not pay them their daily wages.

The next state-wide campaign took place in 1997 in Khagaria district which is a flood prone region.Here the D.SU formed flood relief distribution commitees and explained the peasants the political reasons for which the state could not give common people protection.The flood relief programmes of the government were found to be totally inadequate and the government gave a ready excuse that Nepal has let off water.Infact the real reason was that the landlords did not allow the construction of dams at sites which would have been appropriate because those sites were falling within their lands.Infact the dam mechanism in the state was create only with the purpose of preventing waterlogging and not for flood control. In addition the boatmen were not paid their wages for the relief work. At the end of the campaign the team held public meetings and dharma demanding an end to corruption and compensation for boatmen .

In 1998 the D,S.U with the Bharat Naujavan Sabha visited areas in Buxar ,Palamau Santhal Paraganas and Khagaria districts.In Buxar sustained wall-writing was carried out by activists protesting against the landlords not paying minumum wages to agricultural workers.They were paid wages between Rs.15 to 30.Landlords here possessed 5,000 acres of land and religious Maths owned hundreds of acres.districts.In Santhal Parganas the D.S.U fought for the implementation of a separate Jharkhand State.In Palamau, a centre of the revolutionary peasant movement the D.S.U fought against the construction of a dam which submerged 14 villages.20 people had been killed in the flood the previous year and no compensation was awarded.In Khagaria activists again propagated the real reasons for adequate protection being given to people during floods. The wrong policies of the government were explained. This time �Bandh Sangharsh commitees were formed in villages which held several protest meetings againt corruption.

The last state-wide campaign took place in the Bhagalpur and Bankadistricts.Here the activists gave solidarity to peasant�s struggles and propagated the politics of Naxalbari and agrarian revolution..

In May 2000 the D.S.U held its first state conference in Patna..Students came from all over the state the maximum number coming from Palamau and Jehanabad and Bhagalpur districts in the former 2 districts students faced severe repression on the way to the conference. In addition students came from Buxar,Gaya,Khagariadistricts etc.Before the State conference district conferences were held in Bhagalpur.Patna town and Palamau districts.Here district commitees were formed and the district activities were reviewed. At the State conference Comrade Amitabh was elected the President and Vijay ,the secretay.A 6 member committee consisting of Amitabh,Sachin,Sumit,Pankaj,Vijay and Jaiprakash were elected. Resolutions were passed opposing privatization and communalization of education, opposing the repression on revolutionary movements and supporting the rights of nationalities to self-determination. 2 State-wide workshops were also carried out by the Democratic Students Union. The first one was held in 1999 to discuss organizational functioning, the building of unitspolititicisation methods and finance. Here principally the appropriate forms of struggle were discussed. It was decided that educational institutions were neglected and a regular wall magazine should be brought out in addition to cultural programmes.It was also noted that regular commitees were not formed in several places In the 2nd workshop in February 2000 study classes were held on the history of the Communist movement in India, the State of Education, and dialectical materialism. Delegates attended from Gaya.Palamau ,Bhagalpur and Patna. One of the most significant things that occurred was the merger of the Progressive Students and Youth Front with the D.S.U.The former organisation had a strong mass base in Bhagalpur district leading powerful agitations against fee-hikes and corruption in Bhagalpur University. This organisation also held a massive programme for Tilka Majhi�s birthday to be observed in Bhagalpur university.

Several times the organisation organised gheraoes against the vice-chancellor for hostel demands. After merging into D.S.U the organisation launched a massive demonstration against the administration in Bhagalpur university house -�arresting corrupt officials. The emergence of the Democratic Students Union has played a significant role in the revolutionary movement in Bihar. Innumerable sacrifices have been made by activists. The martyrdom of comrades Anil Ojha and Chanchal were particularly significant.Anil Ojha was killed as a result of police torture after organising a student agitation against malpractices of the principal in Patna Arts College.Chanchal played a great role in organising D.S.U units in Jehanabad districts as well as building the Bharat Naujavan Sabha.Eventually he was killed by his own relatives.

However the movement has had several setbacks.As a result of severe repression by the state on the peasant movement the D.S.U has been unable to function openly in many areas of the State. The best examples are Palamau and Jehanabad.Here activists have often been arrested for carrying out open prograames.Even in Khagaria the D.SU which earlier had a unit has been unable to function. The only prominent areas of functioning are in Bhagalpur and Patna. Although activists have made heroic political sacrifices as a result of the powerful left-sectarian trend in the movement various weaknesses have occurred in the movement.

More recent struggles
Anti-Corruption

In 1999 in Jehanbad district the Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti and the Bharat Naujavan Sabha carried out a campaign against corruption,malpractices,.It started from Jehanabad Railway station.JaiKishore of Bharat Naujavan Sabha and Sunita of Nari Mukti Sangharsh Samiti addressed the gathering. This was significant as in since the late 1990s it was impossible to carry out a democratic meeting in the district. In Begusrai,around the same time a massive campaign was held, against notorious landlords Vijay Singh,Anil Singh. When the M.K.S .P began to work in the region, the landlords tried to sell their lands ,which they had stolen from the peasants who were now landless. They got in contact with the police and hired lumpens to attack the hose of a poor peasant Ram Mahto.The M.K S.P activists protested this mobilized the peasants in ameeting.on 11th August a public meeting was held, comprising of 150people.Raja Ram of the D.S U sang a cultural song and the speakers wee Yogendra Pandit and Ram Mahto.After the meeting all the peasants with great resolve and determination went back. To their original place. (Report from Mukti Marg �July-August 1999)

In 2000 with the co-peration of A.I.P.R,F forces the Jan Abhiyan �A mass democratic Front launched a massive campaign against corruption and goonda raj. Meetings were held in B.N college,PostalPark,MahenDra region.A convention was held in Patna college seminar hall.A rally was held .Organizatio s of various trends participated. unjust condition sin prisons.

Lawyers Movement

Another significant development in the movement in Bihar was the formation of a Democratic Lawyers Organisation called the Radical Lawyers forum in Patna High Court. It pledged to give solidarity to the revolutionary peasant movement by fighting against the ban undemocratic organizations and for the release of wrongly convicted prisoners. They also appealed against for the termination of group clashes between the C.P.I.M.L(Peoples War Group)and the M.C C.The Lawyers who predominantly participated I the formation were Ved Prakash, VisheshwarRam,Medni Kant Jha,Umanath Mishraa,d B.S Upadhya.They pledged against fighting for the repeal of Black Laws, for the democratic rights for political prisoners in jail, for rights of women Etc.They condemned the false encounter in Rajaun Thana in Banka District. Such a Lawyers organization is important for the protection of democratic rights and some good work was done in court. In 1999,took up a major campaign on issues of rape, murder and loot mobilizing 500 people in Banka-Bhagalpur.Revolutionary politics was explained .

In Vaishali a campaign was launched in November 1999,commemorating the Russian revolution and protesting against the rise in diesel prices and bus fare hikes.Arjun Prasad Singh,Chandu Prasad and Shambu Ram, of the Bhagat Singh Club presided over the programme.In Khagaria the activists organised commitees for flood relief and organised several protests to ensure effective protection to the peasantry in the time of floods.To protect the interest of the landlord classes the government took no interest in the People's welfare.The activists helped form people's commitees in order to enhance protection against floods.

At Malgodam Station in Khagaria town a public meeting was organised on the topic of 'Floods.'The meeting was adressed by Gautam Mukherjee of the Bharat Naujavan Sabha, Sachidanand Prabhat of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad,Sunita of the Nari Mukti Sangharsh committee and Sanyojak Shavi of the M.K.S.P and Anil of D.S.U.A memorandum of demands was given to the adminstration.Here it was demanded that adequate boat supply was given to protect people from this calamity and that effective dams should be built.

More recent struggle led by the M.K S P in Khagaria and Bhagalpur districts
defending fishing rights.

In Khagaria the MK.S.P also led struggles protesting against the repression meted out by the Communist Party of India.The C.PI sided with the police in suppressing activists as well as used goondas to beat up the peasant activists. A meeting of 300 people was held. Later on similar grounds in Begusurai activists held a protest meeting consisting of 600 people .This meeting was adressed by Krishna Kant Singh. Later a small convention was held attended by 600 people explaining the nexus between the C.P.I and the State Police. In Begusurai the M.K.S.P carried out a land struggle against Retired magistrate Rajendra Singh and professor Vijay Singh who illegally seized land violating the land ceilings act.Under the leadership of the Mazdoor Kisan Sangrami Parishad the peasants re-captured 200 acres of land.A mass meeting was held in December mobilising 500 people. Later on December 9th a mass meeting was held educating people to fight for their land rights and struggle under the banner of the Red Flag. A most significant event in Bihar's Revolutionary politics was the merging of the Janvadi Mazdoor Kisan Samiti with the M.K.S.P in 1999..In Bhagalpurand Banka districts the J.M.K.S led a strong peasant movement. After their merging a major struggle was held to protect the peasants fishing rights in Banka.The people of Ulhi had waged several struggles for these rights. The first one was when the land was grabbed by Ram Mandal.The Second one was when Mukhia had grabbed their rights of fishing.The peasants had then decided that the catch made by the contractor must be distributed to all the people.This management functioned effectively till 1994. In 1994 the "Daak Sunder Tudu" was re-named and the goonda Subhash Yadav started fishing with the help of his gang in the peasant�s property. He did not share his catch with anybody else. However from 8th to 10th February there was a strong dual between the villagers and the gang of Subhash Yadav.The hooligan used bombs and lethal weapons to scare the villagers. The police Thana sided with the criminal under the pretext of col144.Subhash Yadav re-began fishing. On the 12th February

1999,the M K S P led a successful rally explaining the masses the event that took place. The peasant organisation organised the farm labour of Belhar and other surrounding areas and put up a protracted fight against Suresh Yadav and his gangs.600 people including women and children participated driving the culprits. Although the enemy was armed with guns and ammunition .The masses seized the enemy's weapons. The peasants had won a victory. Suresh Yadav continued his antics but as an organised force the peasants consistently retaliated and defended the right to their livelihood. The class enemies continued to attempt to disunite the people, however the M.K.S.P thwarted their bid by continuously educating the peasantry.



Social activist and rsearch worker Bela Bhatia interviewed activists of the Mazdoor Kisan angram Samiti(M.K S S.).Below I am quoting an excerpt fro her interview.

�Feudalismwill have to be rooted out steadily,otherwise it will uprootyou.It lies like a shadow to every person and untiolit is rooted out revolution canot be achieved.

Before the organization came we did not have knowledge. The organization gave us education regarding the present system and he need to overthrow it.India is a semi-colonial and semi-feudal Country. There is foreign
capital also in our country. We have o en this foreign capital an utilize the capital of our own country.T he downtrodden people have to rise above the system.Each individual should get education. We got books to read about Marx,Lenin and Mao From these we learnt that Mao was a revolutionary and so were Lenin and Mao Tse TungWe read alittele about all the 3.We have not read a lot but understood that what Marx and Lenin wanted to say was that this rotten system should be destroyed, the exploitation of one human being by another should end, human kin should be liberated from this. This is what the leaders have to say.

Below I am publishing some testimonies of leading members of the M.K S.S on revolutionary violence.

�Without arms we feel that we shall not be able to fight. With arms we feel confident ,we will have the power. We fell that we will be able to settle he fight. If e do not have the armed power ,then how will we counter the Landlord�s anger. Can his anger be countered by wagging our finger at him?

Without armed power it is impossible to ensure peoples protection. If we do not have arms then no one will take our committee seriously. Each will do according to his will. They will think �What can they do to us.� When this power is their,they will fear.They know that if thy do not obey us the we have the power to destroy them.

There will be lot of problems. We may even be killed During this period ,many have been matyred .Seeds are sown I he field in hope that they will grow. Similarly, with a dream of Socialism we are walking.

The poesession of arms helped resolve some conflicts without actual resort to violence In Nyona village a wage issue was resolved peacefully because of the armed capacity of the organisation. A villager stated �Because we have arms ,the zamindars have shrunk with fear. Also gangs of bandits and dacoits ,who used to lot peole�s houses ,have been vanquished. Because of the atrocities ,the people used to feel very insecure. This has come to an end.

I am quoting another passage fro Bela Bhatia�sinterview. A senior memer of the M.K S S stated: In 1979 there was an atmosphere of terror in the villages due to the feudal forces and criminal gangs.Even though he labourers had heard about us they we too scared to call us. However we were able to establish contact with few members of he J.P Movement,and asked him to arrange a meeting with few labourers introducing us as individuals who belonged to a party of the poor.On the agreed day we met at midnight In the fields. Instead of meeting a small group we met about 50 men.They were armed with lathis ,bhals and gadasas.

The terrorized villagers explained that they would have taken the activists to the village but it was too risky.The �Maliks� had warned them that they would be severely punished if they brought he naxalites to the village..We activisists,emphasized the issues of izzat,wages,land abd basic democratic rights,but explained that it could only be done by our own strength. The People understood this stating, �We have understood .You are Naxalites,you talk about strength.�

People now started coming in large numbrs.At first they were hesitant to speak out. Finally one of them spoke out,�We will now be coming to the meeting,expecting each time to get arms.If you are demanding confrontation and armed revolution,should you not provide us with arms.�Thus ,I actual fact, they were demanding arms.�

Such incidents show the mass approach of the M.K S.S

Miltary actions by Party Unity.

This year is 20 years since the group held it�s conference. At the Party Congress held in 1987 the COC, CPI (ML) Party Unity outlined the following tasks : "We are tackling the steadily increasing armed onslaughts of the state, through mass resistance. But gradually the squads too will have to come forward to participate in this resistance. At the phase of confiscating all lands of the landlords and on the eve of building up the guerilla zone, the activities of the squads will be the main aspect of the people�s resistance against the armed attacks of the state." The organisiation led significant struggles in Jehenabad region. and launched some significant armed actions. Several Comrades were martyred.

In the Indo region of Masaudhi,on 23rd April 6 commandes of a squad were martyred. Comrades Lalit Manjhi, Brind Paswan Lakahn, LalBihari, Surendra Ravidas, Ramprasad Yadav and Chenga Manjhi were martyred.All of the were under 18 years of age. In Indo the Police colluded with the Ranbir Sena and
staged their camps. They used landlord senas.To combat he landlord gangs the Party Unity squad on 1st February retaliayed and punished the goonda elements o February 1st 1997.

Report from 1996 Journal of �Party Unity� In Malabar village of Palamau region in Vishrampur Thana the
P.U squad carried out an action on 3 Jawans .A huge battle too place between the armed squad and the police.The squad eventually seized the rifles from he police.The Malabar region and it�s surrounding areas has a history of police �landlord repression .The Sunlight Sena was very active in this part.

In 1991 a Police Camp was staged in this region.The Party Unity squad did creditable work in isolating the Sunlight Serna gangs ,A little after the Malabar encounter ,police repression began in Palamau. In Murumdag village in Chatarpur Thana 6 Comrades of Party Unity fell.Later 2 more members were assassinated. In Rohats district 2 further comrades wee mowed down.

Malabar region was chosen as it was the birthplace of the Sunlight Sena.From here the Sunligt Sena spread to Aurangabad,,Hazirabag and Chatra.Major repression was launched o the peole of Malabar on 4th June
1991.By 1994,this spread to Belahar,. The organization made a self-critical analysis of their action.Their goal was to seize arms As result of incorrect tactical operation 2 comrades were sacrificed in it�s view..

The organsiation resolved
1.All repressin on the peasnt movement be stopped.
2.The Police force must stop protecting the Sunlight Sena.
3.All police camps should be withdrawn from districts.
4.To lift the ban on revolutionary organsiatins
5.The killers of he omrades in Chatarpur and Rohats should be unished
6.To compensate all he families whose memberswee killed in Malabar,Belhar,Pandipur, and neighbouring areas.All hose esponsible for the killings should be punished.
Work was alos done to establisg uerilla Zones I the Koyal-Kemur Zone.

The Party did lot of work promoting the slogan of �boycottting the election.�In 1996 a major campaign was carried out on the commemorating day of the Arwal massacre in 1996 in Gaya A big cultural programme was led in Magadh region./

2 major military confrontations were staged in Gulzarbigha and Chatarpur.For some moths t Police battalions launched capms in Gulzarbigha and Chatarpur.Mass organisatin struggles were suppressed and activists continuous ly arrestd.Combing operations wre launched and police camps weres staged.AT THE Daltonganj-DEhri railway station the people staged ablockade. civilian train was burnt in Chatarpurand at Bhagavanganj an ambush was launched killing 3 policeman .On 14th June a police Picketwas assaulted by aparty armeds quad ,where 3 policemen fell.

In 1996 Significantly in their review in the state Conference,they analsyed that the party organization was significantly weak and needed to consolidate itself.Political and Organsiatonal work had to be consolidated. was weak and their was need to strengthen he peasant organization.It was alos decided in the fist state conference that it would work o strengthening the movement in the plain and jungle aaes.Both these zones had weaknesses.Work had started in the Magadh zone .In Jehenabad the organization had to combat he wrath of he tyrant Mahendra Singh who captured thousands of acres of Gir Mazura land.A major land struggle was led against him .The party activists captured the land and warned Mahendra Singh that until he returned the captured land ,he would not be allowed to sell anypart of his alnd.In Mukhdanpur ,in Jehanabad similarly land was captured from landlord Shivdeni Singh.

1.To build Peoples Rule and democratic alternative.Fothis amajor movement has to be launched against the state.

2.To merge he Koyal-Kemur Zone after guerila Zones have been established in both the regions. After that work should spread to other districts.
3.Make North Bihar aRed Resistance Area.
4.Oppose black laws on he revolutionary Movement and military repression.
5.Peoples Courts should be established
6.To combat the sstate launch aPeoles Resistance Movement .In this light ti incraes the peasant�s movements.

Fight for the demands of fJunle and land and building of peasnt organsiations.Fight struggles fro m the garssroot stage.
7.Figt for revolutionary ideology,politics, and implementi ng the Party Programme.

On 14th April 1996 6 Party Unity Squads were killed in false encounter Comrade Ramsham Bhiah,Biruj Pasawn,Prabhu Paswan,Vinay Yadav,Avad betah and Pyari Bhuiah were matyred.on 30th December 1995 Comrade Dinkar was martyred,sadly at the hands of the M.C.C.He was a commander of the Arwal
area ,who played a great role in the revolutionary movement.

On 3rd June a Party Unity squad was attacked in Palamau who were leading the Beedi-Patta struggle..A police party attacked the squad.In the process Comrdae Guddu and Comrdae Ajay fell.Both of them belonged to Japla district.They joined the movement at the age of 13 years.

On 14th June Comrades Annnirudh nad Amrut were martyred in a police picket at Malabar.

Relationship between the Maoist Communist Centre.and Party Unity Group

Below I AM Quoting the views of a Party Unity Spokesman from journal MuktiMarg/ �From 1980-81 a relationship was built up between the 2 parties.Both groups worked in heir respective districts.Both groups cadres and squads respected each other.In the P�U� view when heys aw the dangerof clashes emerging they
warned their own cadres not to clash with the M.C.C squads in their areas.An M.C.C spokesman at that time stated that from 1989 the Party Unty Squads wee interfering with the M.C.Cwork and even confronting them.In Party Unity�s view in he first clash it was he M.C.C that attacked a P.U member in Chatarpur in Palamau.The Name of he Comrdae was Ramvilas.In 1989 Comrade Mahendra met a similar fate in Manika Village in Barvahi. Later a dispute took place on the acceptance of Comrade Satnarayan as a member of the M.C.C .In the view of PU.he was an anti-people element.The M.C.C went on to assassinate him in a Peoples Court Trial.The P.U opposed this claiming that though he was bad element it was incorrect to mete out a punishment in such a manner.

In the Dalechauk Baghera retaliation IN 1987 by the Maoist Communist Centre when they organized Dalit families against the Rajput landlords.the P.U Group supported the M.C.C� , but critically..It explained that mass struggle must be adopted and not individual armed action.

From 1992-94 attacks continued by M.C.C but the P.U did not retaliate.In 1995 mutual clashes began between the 2 groups with no avail.On 15th September 1996 one PU. comrade was attacked in Pindrahi in Chatrapur Earlier a similar incident had occurred on August 1995 in Grawah.In 1995 Comrade Dinkar was killed,On 30th December 1996 Lalu Singh of the Party Unity was killd by the M.C.C.On 22nd March 1997 Degan of the P.U was assassinated

.IThe M.C C launched a military front agisnt the Party Unity.Group..90-100 people from their ranks entered our struggle areas and beat up our activist.Our mass organizations are also attacked.In October 1998,the M.C
Cattacked a meeting and killed aP.U.commander namely,Avdesh Pal as well as 5 other comrades.In November 19989 I Jehanabad in Kudial villageb a Peoples Court was attacked,.In this encounter the M.K S.P activist In March 1999,in Vishrampur in Palamau village an M.C.C ssquad, attacked apeople�s meeting, and killed 2 P.U.activists namely Comrades Sudhir and Ramsheesh.Comrade Biruj was killed. However the M.C.C holds the P.U responsible for the killings.In their view it started wit P.U� Sattack when Co Satyanarayana was killed by the M.C.C.


Work IN West Bengal

The organization launched a serious political movement in West Bengal .It made a consistent effort in isolating the C.P.M.gangs and the pro-landlod forces. Work was one in Malda aera 13 km away from the Bangladesh/est Begal border.This area dose not have many landlords but he surrounding areas have
them. Several middle peasants became rich in tis area.They garbed the land of the poor peasants.One tyrant from Utar Pradesh called Sadhu Ghosh seized 500 acresof land ad was protetd by the B.S.F.Heenagged himself in smuggling.And dacoity.

In Northern Bengal C.P.M is very stong. There are several people threw o who have seized the land of the peasants..The P.U group worked the under he banner of their peasant organization. It re-captured 90 acrse of illegally seized lan.

A struggle was launched against he Mahajans. In That area all the peasants who wee poor or landless were members of the C.P.M. peasant organsiation-the P.K.M.U.They left that organization to join the Party Unity ranks .With the help of he police force he C.P. tried o suppress the revolutionary fores but displaying courage of steel the revolutionaries thwarted attacks.

The P.U did a sustained campaign propogationg �Election boycott�. The state election were held on 2nd May Several peasants became sympathetic to the Party Unity Forces .On 4th May from all 4 sides landlord forces blocked The people had to bear the wrath of repression an women were raped. From 5th to 9th May state forces openly launched an attack on the Pasty Unity sympathizers in that district.

On 10th May the Party Unity led peasant organization led a delegation to he D.M.S.P.An F.I.R.was launched.This however had no impact on the police.

On the other side of Malda district in Harish Chandrapur Thana the organization did major work. An agitation was launched protesting against Landlords blocking poor peasants from obtaining water. The [Prty Unity
forces heroically resisted the pro C.P.M goons andandlord forcesI 1994 C.P.M gonads and I 1995 a Musli landlord attempted this.In his struggle Comrade Irsad Ali was martyred in the hands of goondas.

In Rankhol-Barokhria the party fought for justice on1000 acres of land which was every year destroyd by floods.T his prevented cultivation o that land. Just before elections a successful struggle as launched on this issue.Even here the C.P.M attacked the revolutionary forces. In Harsishchandrapur the REvolutionay forces launched a convention. As a result o his the C.P.M launched another attack on 13th May 1996 and Corade
Mamrej Ali was martyred.The Police launchd an F.IR on behalf the wife of the martyred comrade and no compensation was given.The revolutionary peasant organization protested this the police attacked them with weapons.

Work started in North Bengal in 1995-96 .Since then till the unity with C.P.I(ML)Peoples War Group a sustained effort was launched to resist he C.P.M forces.After the later 2 mergers forces were consolidated.

In 1997 the Party Unity Group played amajor role in the raly commemorating the 30th anniversary o Naxalabari.

In the July 1999 Issue a Party Unity state secretary(technically hen P.W State secretary as both the groups had merged) was interviewed.I felt likere-producing some of his view points.:

�Revolution is our strategy. We try to reach the revolution or peoples War from the villages or the cities. There are 3 phases. First when poor agricultural labourers and peasants and broad masses unite.This is the
preaparatory phase for forming the guerilla Zone. The 2nd is forming the Guerilla Zone when revolutionary committees are formed.The 3rd phase is when revolutionary organs of power are firmly established Now strategic or Liberated Zones can be formed.

At present we are I the stage of preparing gueril aZ ones.We place utmost emphasis on carrying out boycott of parliamentary electios as the semi-colonial and semi0feudal India state does not have real bourgeois democracy.We are trying to emulate the ndhra Pradesh experience by building guerilla ones .We have not been able to establish revolutionary peasnt committees,but have effective village comitees.Here mases are organized in self-defence landlords and criminals are tried,progressive metods of production are introduced,illeagally seized land is re-apture,Today our organization has reached the stage of the stirs in Telengana in Andhra Pradesh and Dandkaranya.Peasants are establishing their own rule in such areas

Analysis of C.P.I(M.L) Party Unity Group From the time of formation in January 1982 it�s contribution was of historic importance.In many way�s the group had an intermediate line between the C.P.I(M.Liberaton)group and the Maoist Communist Centre.The methods they deployed to create mass movements were a great lesson for revolutionaries ,particularly the methods they deployed to build the Mazdur Kisan Sangram Samiti.A huge range of struggle methods were deployed and a great effort was made to rectify the negative effect of the Charu Mazumdar line.Unlike the Maoist Communist Centre they considered forming a revolutionary peasant organization as integral to the movement.They made a calculated assault and tactfully first concentrated on exposing the landlord gangs.True the way they connected armed guerilla squads to the peasant organizations was defective ,but still they carried out he mass line to a greater degree than the Maoist Communist Centre or the Liberation Group.It was really remarkable the way they revived the banned Mazdur Kisan Sangraami Samiti which was banned I 1986 to the Mazdur Kisan Mukti Manch and later I 1994 to the Mazdur Kisan Sangrami Parishad.They also led struggles of middle peasants.The author first met their activists in Mumbai in July 1990 when they came on a programme representing the organizations mass revolutionary Front-of 7 mass organsiations �the Lok Sangram Morcha.Activists now clearly understood the revisionist character of Liberation Group�s line.It was attribute that 2 Part Unity mass leaders held open programes against state repression.
.
In the author�s view it is a tribute to he resilience of the Party Unity Group that such a revolutionary mass movement was sustained against a powerful enemy. Movements were formed on alL fronts. The work was particularly outstanding in Jehanabad and Palamau and effectively spread to other areas like Gaya,Aurangabad,Khagaria,Buxar,Begusurai Rohtas,Etc.To quite a extent it applied Mao�s line of protracted warfare where a base area is consolidated.I was also impressed with the youth organization struggles like cycle rallies Etc.However defective military line led to defective approach in the preparation of guerilla Zones,or their conversion to base areas. The methods used to create armed wings which were attached to mass peasant organizations as a military combat force were also defective.9armed wings attched to the M.K.S S)

The major hurdle of historical importance in the revolutionary movement was the period of armed Group clashes between the squads of the Maoist Communist Centre with the Party Unity Group from the mid 1990-s. Group members attacked and killed each other.It showed the wrong understanding towards mass revolutionary line in certain aspects.This had a damaging effect on the revolutionary movement.It reduced the masses to helpless spectators.The left-sectarian military tactical line of the Erstwhile Party Unity Group and theErstwhile Maoist Communist Center had a great role to play in this.For a great part of the revolutionary peasant movement the Party Unity activists were martyred at the hands of the Liberation Group.Since the early 90�s this trend was predominant as seversl peasant organisation activists were martyred in the hands of the Liberation Group.Whether it was correct to fight the Liberation Group the manner they did is a debatable point.However the killing of several of their members by the M.C.C was unexplicable.It reflected the weaknesses in political line.Today though a merger of historic importance has taken place.However the line of armed struggle implemented by the C.P.I(Maoist)is basically that of the Maoist Communist Centre and not that of the erstwhile Party Unity Group.(Squads or P.G.A implement virtually the same line of the Maoist Communist Centre)The author is neutral on the group clashes and holds the Party Unity Group as responsible as the Maoist Commmunist Centre. The author does not take sides and is
neutral.Incorrect military line and defective mass revolutionary approach of both the groups was the cause of he clashes.The Party Unity was as responsible as the M.C.C. in the clashes.(Sometimes it started with the P.U)It is significant hat during the clashes the PU.called the M C C a revolutionary Organisation with a defective political line .Inspite of such significant similarities mutually they had this same view of each other.

Sadly in the process of merging into the Peoples War Group and later into the C.P.I(Maoist) the mass revolutionary struggles virtually became defunt.For a long period they carried out armed struggle to certain extent which substantiated the br oad agrarian peasant movement.However laterbecause of defective perception of military line capitulated to left sectarian understanding. One must praise the consistency of the organisation when it merged with the Peoples War Group in 1998.It also played a major role in the formation of the All India Peoples Resistance Forum .In the 1992 and 1994 conferences it played a very significant role in terms of mobilization..It is significant that upto the early 1990s it never launched armed struggle against the State.Even though Peoples War led a big armed movement in Andhra Pradesh it hardly gave the same emphasis on mass peasant organization as Party Unity Group.The revolutionary democratic methods the organization were heroic-more fitting with the mass line than he other groups now merged into the C.P.I(Maoist).To me no group has combined armed struggle with revolutionary mass movements as the Party Unity Group in he history of Indian revolutionary movement .Above all it promoted armed revolution but with open revolutionary democratic programmes where they united in a broad front with groups of different trends.(Even united with Chatra Yuva Sangharsh Vahin iEtc)

In 1998 the merger of the C.P.M.L(Party Unity)Group with the C.P.I.M.L(Peoples War) group had a positive effect on the consolidation of the guerilla Zone Struggle areas However group clashes between armed suqad members continued between the newly formed Peoples War Group in Bihar with the Maoist Communist Centre. .Fortunately the 2 groups(Now merged into the C.P.I Maoist) had later resolved to stop their clashes and solve their differences. This was a healthy sign as reflected by their recent joint action programmes and their press statement.The final merging of the C.P.I.M.L Peoples War with the Maoist Communist Centre into the C.P.I.Maoist is of great historic significance to the Bihar Revolutionary Movement.) A tendency of �Individual annihilation of the Class Enemy still affected the organization�s line.However I the author�s opinion he current line of he C.P.I(Maoist) is virtuallyT hat of what the Maoist Communist Centre was practicing in terms of military line Bihar. The major defect of the organisation was how to relate the party organization to the open mass Fronts.Often prematurely armed military wings were attached o the peasant organization.

In West Bengal mass front�s of the peasants students youth and cultural section fought together for democratic struggles.Heroic movements wee built up in all fronts in the State and the group was the strongest revolutionary Group in the state.In the trade Union Front left sectarian understanding prevented the groups from working towards a broad based trade Union movement.In the student and youth section although there is a revolutionary movement led by the groups(�Go to Village Campaigns�, �go to factories and Slum Campaigns�)there is still a lot of glorification is given to armed squad heroes and mass agrarian revolutionary politics is not upheld. Peasant organization were formed by both groups but there was still lack of cohesive
revolutionary resistance to combat the onslaught of the C.PI.M.revisionist Forces and isolate them.

In Delhi in the time of he Erstwhile Party Unity Group there was a strong student and youth movement which was directed to the agrarian revolutionary movement in Bihar.However now that has virtually diminished after severe bouts of repression in Bihar.I Punjab theErswhile Party Unity Organisation hardly built a mass movement in areas where they worked .They showed defective understanding to concept of mass organization In Punjab during the Khalistani and post Khalistani Movement. Within the Bharatiya Kisan Union they often tried t impose the revolutionary Party Politics and were unable to develop democratic Functioning.

Homage to Martyrs

Let us end the piece paying homage to the martyrs and dip our blood in memory of them.(Martys of organiastion)Red Salutes to, Comrades Dinkar, Lalit Manjhi, Brind Paswan Lakahn, LalBihari, Surendra Ravidas, Ramprasad Yadav and Chenga Manjhi, Comrade Ramsham Bhiah,Biruj Pasawn,Prabhu Paswan,Vinay Yadav,Avad betah and Pyari Bhuiah, Lakhan Manjhi (20 years), Sudeshi Manjhi (19) and Balkishore Manjhi (15):All armed squad members)Comrdae Chanchal,Pankaj,Maju ,Aditya ,Suresh Yadav,Anil Ojha,Krishna Singh, Siddhu Ram,Balmukund Sharma,Gorakah Chowdhury,Jagdish Pasawn ,Mukhiah.Iswar Ali(All mass organization leaders and activists) Etc.From West Bengal is the 20th anniversary year of peasant leader Comrade Bhowmik who was slain by C.P.M goons.Sorry,that I have not got a complete list of the martyrs.

I thank activists like Arjun Prasad Singh,then convenor of Bihar All India Peoples Resistance Forum.I visited Bihar in Octobr 2001 and also met stuent leader Amitabh.Stae A.I.P.R.F secretary Sachidanand Prabahat, M.K S ecretary Naveen Etc.I bow dow to he achievements of all the leadsr and activsists of heorgansiatio throughout it�s history.

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posted by Resistance 6/30/2007 12:53:00 AM,

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